Hyperpituitarism and Hypopituitarism

Hyperpituitarism and Hypopituitarism

The pituitary gland is a kidney bean-shaped organ situated at the base of the brain. It controls the regulation of all hormones essential for the body’s functions. These hormones act on nearly every part of the body. Sometimes, an imbalance in the amount of one or more pituitary hormones produced can gravely affect an individual’s organ function and overall health.

While the short supply of one or more pituitary hormones is known as hypopituitarism, excess production of one or more pituitary hormones is called hyperpituitarism. The signs and symptoms in each case usually develop gradually and worsen with age. Some symptoms may be visible, while many may be overlooked until adverse effects. Signs and symptoms may also vary from person to person, depending on the type of hormone and the degree to which they’re affected.

Both hypopituitarism and hyperpituitarism can adversely affect many of your body’s functions like

  • Growth regulation
  • Skin pigmentation
  • Puberty in children
  • Sexual function and reproduction
  • Lactation or breast milk production in women
  • Thyroid function

Let us have a look at signs and symptoms in both cases:

HypopituitarismHyperpituitarism
Growth hormone (GH) deficiency can cause severe effects in men and women   FatigueMuscle weaknessRapid changes in body fat composition lack of social interactionExcessive production of growth hormone (GH) leads to gigantism or acromegaly.   Symptoms include: Larger limb development Skin tagsWeaknessJoint pain and limited movement Excessive sweating and body odourProminent facial features Barrel chest husky voiceFrequent headaches    
Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are responsible for sexual function. Their deficiency causes irregular periods, lack of or no lactation, hot flashes etc., in women. In contrast, it can cause erectile dysfunction, decreased facial and body hair and mood swings in men.  Excessive production of Luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) causes the following in women and men.   Irregular periods Erectile dysfunction
Lower pituitary hormone levels can also result in the low production of thyroid hormone, leading to hypothyroidism. IT causes the following symptoms:   FatigueWeight gainDry skinConstipationSensitivity to cold or difficulty staying warmPituitary levels tipping towards excess levels can trigger Hyperthyroidism, which is characterized by the following symptoms:   Irregular heartbeats Anxiety Exhaustion Muscle stiffness and weakness Weight loss      
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency This hormone helps one to react to stressful situations. ACTH deficiency symptoms include: Severe fatigue Low BP accompanied by fainting spells Frequent infections Nausea and abdominal pain  Abnormal levels of cortisol cause Cushing syndrome resulting in the following symptoms Excess upper body fat Acne vulgaris Excessive facial hair on women Fragile bones that frequently get fractured
Anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) deficiency Also called Vasopressin, it helps in the regulation of collecting and expelling body fluids. Its deficiency can cause diabetes insipidus characterized by Excessive urinationExtreme thirstElectrolyte imbalances   
Prolactin deficiency This hormone regulates milk production in the mammary glands of lactating mothers. Its deficiency can have severe effects on lactation, ultimately resulting in deteriorated health of mother and child.      Pituitary tumours can sometimes cause Galactorrhea or Prolactinoma resulting in the following: Reproductive dysfunctions such as irregular periods or menstrual cycle stops, infertility, low sex drive, tender breasts, abnormal milk production in females before pregnancy and rarely in males.

Hypopituitarism treatment and hypopituitarism treatment involve hormonal therapy, consisting of injections or medication. Searching for the ‘best endocrinologist near me’ or the ‘best endocrinologist in India online‘ will help you get in touch with super-specialists who will help you monitor your symptoms and keep a check on hormone levels in the blood to ensure that appropriate amounts are being received. Consult award-winning doctors online at SeekMed, who shall help you ratify diagnosis and explore the best treatment plans. With an average medical experience of 25 years, they shall be able to help adjust medicine dosage during times of physical or mental stress, other ailments, surgery or dental procedures. So make an informed decision and improve your health outcomes with India’s top online medical consultation service.

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